Testosterone Hormone ID 1

As a steroid hormone produced naturally by the body, testosterone is a key component in maintaining health.

Testosterone stimulates growth in parts of the body sensitive to androgens, promoting muscle and bone development as well as growth of those parts of the body with specific gender characteristics.

Testosterone is primarily administered to treat conditions associated with hormonal deficiency but in sports its anabolic, growth effects are most sought after, where the synthesis of proteins in muscle tissue is significantly accelerated.


The most common anti-doping test is that of measuring the testosterone / epitestosterone ratio in a sample of an athlete's urine.

The limit of this ratio is normally set at 4:1 and in positive test results, that level has often been much higher.

Tests may also demonstrate that the testosterone found in the sample has synthetic rather than natural origins, thus generating clear evidence of doping.

Incidents 135 Type Date
Ribeiro, N suspension Temporary suspension 06/11/2023
Freeman suspension Violation 15/08/2023
Freeman tribunal Investigation 12/03/2021
Del Moral repeal Appeal against sanction 27/10/2018
WADA US Postal appeals (Celaya) Permanent ban 24/10/2018
WADA US Postal appeals (Marti) Appeal against sanction 24/10/2018
WADA US Postal appeals (Bruyneel) Permanent ban 24/10/2018
Armstrong federal lawsuit Hearing evidence 19/04/2018
Sola positive Positive test 28/05/2017
Team Sky investigation Investigation 07/10/2016
Danielson positive Positive test 09/07/2015
Leinders suspension Permanent ban 22/01/2015
Bruyneel suspension Temporary suspension 22/04/2014
Celaya suspension Temporary suspension 22/04/2014
Marti suspension Temporary suspension 22/04/2014
Nigrelli permanent ban Permanent ban 17/01/2014
Rasmussen, M admission (Rabobank) Admission statement 31/01/2013
Rasmussen, M admission (CSC) Admission statement 31/01/2013
PDM teamwide doping Admission statement 23/01/2013
Bouwmans admission Admission statement 17/01/2013
Armstrong admission Admission statement 14/01/2013
Crawford admission Admission statement 05/12/2012
Gasparre admission Admission statement 26/11/2012
Leukemans appeal Appeal against sanction 19/11/2012
White suspension Temporary suspension 13/10/2012
Bruyneel resignation Termination of contract 12/10/2012
Hincapie admission Admission statement 10/10/2012
Leipheimer suspension Temporary suspension 10/10/2012
Danielson suspension Temporary suspension 10/10/2012
Zabriskie suspension Temporary suspension 10/10/2012
Barry suspension Temporary suspension 10/10/2012
Vandevelde suspension Temporary suspension 10/10/2012
Polievka positive Positive test 07/10/2012
Hamilton admission 2 Admission statement 30/08/2012
Armstrong permanent ban Permanent ban 24/08/2012
US Postal lifetime bans Permanent ban 10/07/2012
US Postal investigation 2 (2005-2007) Investigation 12/06/2012
US Postal investigation 2 (2003-2004) Investigation 12/06/2012
Operación Carrera Investigation 21/06/2011
Keuser positive Positive test 11/04/2011
Landis admission 2 Admission statement 30/01/2011
Matschiner admission Admission statement 12/10/2010
Matschiner conviction Criminal conviction 11/10/2010
Landis admission 1 Admission statement 20/05/2010
Via Col Padua investigation Investigation 16/06/2009
Freiburg Report - T-Mobile Investigation 13/05/2009
Mantova investigation Investigation 01/04/2009
Matschiner arrest Arrest 30/03/2009
Kerschbaum fired Termination of contract 22/03/2009
Kerschbaum arrest Arrest 21/03/2009
Landuyt conviction Criminal conviction 16/12/2008
Freiburg criminal investigation: Telekom Investigation 13/10/2008
Bebto suspension Permanent ban 10/07/2008
Landis appeal 2 Appeal against sanction 30/06/2008
Balestri, Barotti RS and Barotti A suspensions Permanent ban 10/03/2008
Vila positive Positive test 03/03/2008
Leukemans positive Positive test 26/09/2007
Landis appeal 1 Appeal against sanction 20/09/2007
Sinkewitz admission Admission statement 31/07/2007
Koerts admission 1 Admission statement 25/07/2007
Moreni positive Positive test 19/07/2007
Alessandri admission Admission statement 29/06/2007
Sinkewitz positive 1 Positive test 08/06/2007
Mayo positive 1 Positive test 01/06/2007
Heinrich admission Admission statement 24/05/2007
Schmid admission 1 Admission statement 23/05/2007
Kessler positive Positive test 24/04/2007
Fertonani positive Positive test 17/02/2007
Cofidis convictions Criminal conviction 19/01/2007
Landaluze cleared Appeal against sanction 19/12/2006
Skibby admission Admission statement 19/11/2006
Landis positive Positive test 20/07/2006
Puerto - Pantani link Hearing evidence 03/07/2006
Roux admission 1 Admission statement 19/06/2006
Roux admission 2 Admission statement 19/06/2006
Nose positive Positive test 11/06/2006
Bologna appeal Appeal against sanction 23/05/2006
Papp positive Positive test 07/05/2006
Urweider positive Positive test 14/02/2006
Rumsas, E conviction Criminal conviction 26/01/2006
Ficek conviction Criminal conviction 26/01/2006
Rumsas, R conviction Criminal conviction 26/01/2006
Este acquittals Hearing evidence 23/09/2005
Rumsas, R arrest Arrest 29/06/2005
Lazzaro conviction Criminal conviction 11/06/2005
Landaluze positive 1 Positive test 11/06/2005
Dimitrov positive Positive test 18/04/2005
Este trial Hearing evidence 09/11/2004
Bologna trial conviction Criminal conviction 01/10/2004
Pfannberger positive 1 Positive test 27/06/2004
Castelblanco positive Positive test 19/06/2004
Oil for Drugs raids Arrest 10/06/2004
Kelme legal investigation Investigation 21/05/2004
Cofidis resignations Termination of contract 05/05/2004
Kelme sports investigation Investigation 30/03/2004
Manzano revelations 2 [laundry list] Admission statement 25/03/2004
Sassone admission Admission statement 25/03/2004
Yates, J positive Violation 10/03/2004
Sassone arrest Arrest 13/01/2004
Landuyt arrest Arrest 05/09/2003
Bergmann fired Termination of contract 04/02/2003
Rumsas, E arrest Arrest 28/07/2002
Rütimann positive 2 Positive test 05/05/2002
Brouzes positive Positive test 28/03/2002
Simeoni admission Admission statement 12/02/2002
Blitz raids [List 51] Investigation 06/06/2001
Chiotti admission Admission statement 28/04/2000
Reporter admissions Admission statement 31/12/1999
Botero suspension Temporary suspension 10/11/1999
Ampler positive Positive test 28/07/1999
Nigrelli raid Investigation 01/06/1999
Henn positive Positive test 20/05/1999
Møller positive Positive test 07/03/1999
Casagrande appeal Appeal against sanction 10/01/1999
Voet arrest Arrest 08/07/1998
Casagrande positive Positive test 30/04/1998
Sanders, W investigation Investigation 26/11/1997
Skelde positive Positive test 10/08/1997
Fontanelli positive Positive test 27/04/1996
Millar, R positive Positive test 14/05/1992
Theunisse positive 3 Positive test 13/06/1990
Theunisse positive 2 Positive test 11/04/1990
Yates, S adverse analytical finding Adverse analytical finding 09/08/1989
Pedretti positive Positive test 22/05/1989
Andersen rehabilitation Appeal against sanction 26/11/1988
PDM testosterone experimentation Admission statement 30/09/1988
Theunisse positive 1 Positive test 15/07/1988
De La Cruz positive Positive test 06/07/1988
Recio positive 3 Positive test 12/06/1988
Andersen positive 6 Positive test 23/08/1987
Contini positive Positive test 24/07/1987
Bontempi positive Positive test 07/07/1987
Yáñez positive Positive test 02/05/1987
Maas positive Positive test 24/04/1981
Van der Velde positive Positive test 19/04/1981
People 116 Nationality
Alessandri Flavio
Ampler Uwe
Andersen Kim
Armstrong Lance
Barry Michael
Bergmann Reto
Bondue Alain
Bontempi Guido
Bossoni Paolo
Botero Santiago
Bouwmans Eddy
Brouzes Niels
Bruyneel Johan
Casagrande Francesco
Castelblanco José Joaquim
Celaya Pedro
Chiotti Jérôme
Contini Silvano
Crawford Rick
Danielson Tom
de la Cruz Roque
Dhaenens Rudy
Dimitrov Krasimir
Ducrot Maarten
Fernández Francisco José
Ferrari Michele
Fertonani Marco
Ficek Krzysztof
Fok Bertus
Fontanelli Fabiano
Freeman Richard
Frigo Dario
Garcia Del Moral Luis
Gasparre Graziano
Gilmozzi Sebastian
Gisbers Jan
Hamilton Tyler
Heinrich Lothar
Henn Christian
Hincapie George
Janssen Peter
Kerschbaum Christoph
Kessler Matthias
Keuser Andreas
Knaggs Barton
Koerts Jans
Konings Maria
Lana Guillermo
Landaluze Iñigo
Landis Floyd
Landuyt José
Lavagnini Lorenzo
Lazzaro Enrico
Leinders Geert
Leipheimer Levi
Leukemans Björn
Maas Jo
Manzano Jesús
Marti José Pepi
Matschiner Stefan
Mayo Iban
Millar Robert
Missaglia Gabriele
Moreni Cristian
Møller Claus Michael
Müller Jörg
Nigrelli Guido
Nose Tomasz
Pantani Marco
Papp Joe
Pedretti Omar
Pedrina Carlo
Pfannberger Christian
Piccoli Mariano
Polievka Pavol
Pont Guillaume
Quintanilha Adrian
Rasmussen Michael
Recio José
Ribeiro Nuno
Rooks Steven
Roux Laurent
Rumšas Edita
Rumšas Raimondas
Rütimann Stefan
Rutkiewicz Marek
Sainz Bernard
Santuccione Carlo
Sassone Robert
Schmid Andreas
Simeoni Filippo
Sinkewitz Patrik
Skelde Michael
Skibby Jesper
Sola Manuel
Stapleton Bill
Stevenhaagen Peter
Theunisse Gert-Jan
Urweider Sascha
Van der Poel Adrie
van der Velde Johan
Van Orsouw Marc
Vandevelde Christian
Vanmol Yvan
Versele Herman
Viaene Freddy
Vila Patxi
Virú Walter
Voet Willy
Weisel Thomas
White Matthew
Winnen Peter
Yáñez Felipe
Yates Jeremy
Yates Sean
Zabriskie David



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