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Clenbuterol Bronchodilator ID 7

Clenbuterol is classified as a sympathomimetic amine, meaning that it is a synthetic substance analogous to natural neurotransmitters (such as adrenaline) that act on the sympathetic nervous system.

Medically, its value is primarily as a bronchodilator, enabling asthma patients to breathe more easily, but it is most likely to be used by athletes to accelerate weight loss. While it is not approved for human use in some countries, where it tends nevertheless to be used on livestock, Clenbuterol is readily available elsewhere.

Testing

Clenbuterol is excreted from the body in the urine and can thus be detected by analysis using such technology as mass spectrometry.

Currently the most sensitive equipment is capable of detecting Clenbuterol concentrations as low as 5-10pg/ml in the urine, but WADA only requires that an accredited laboratory be able to detect a level as low as 2ng/ml (a picogram (pg) is one-trillionth of a gram; whilst a nanogram (ng) is one billionth of a gram).

A typical dose used by an athlete might be in the range of 50-100µg (microgram, one millionth of a gram) or higher, and under these conditions, Clenbuterol may be detected in the urine for a week or longer after it was last consumed.

Controversy

Since Clenbuterol is used on livestock to increase the proportion of lean meat, it can potentially be consumed by humans without their knowledge. In Europe, meat sold for human consumption is required to have a level of Clenbuterol less than 100ng/kg but elsewhere - particularly in China, Mexico and the Latin American region - standards may not be enforced.

Thus athletes who have tested positive for this substance in recent times have argued that their ingestion of this substance was accidental rather than the result of intentional doping.

Some scientists believe that this uncertainty might be alleviated by instituting a threshold for Clenbuterol — a level below which a positive would not be considered doping — but WADA has announced that it has no plans to change the status of the drug.

The current situation therefore remains: the outcome of each case is determined by whether or not an athlete can successfully argue that the evidence supports the conclusion that ingestion resulted from contaminated food.

Such evidence might include the location in which the meat was obtained or a hair test since Clenbuterol, like many other substances, accumulates in very small amounts in hair follicles. If an athlete has taken the substance over a period of time in the past, his/her hair test might return a positive for a period of six months or longer. Conversely, if the Clenbuterol resulted from a single incident, in which the subject had eaten meat for example, a hair test would almost certainly be negative.

Contributor: Andy Smith

Incidents 29 Type Date
Brázda positive Positive test 12/11/2016
Kovár positive Positive test 12/11/2016
Russian Olympic Games exclusions Exclusion 28/07/2016
Cash investigation Investigation 27/06/2016
Sveshnikov positive Positive test 23/01/2014
Breyne positive Positive test 05/11/2013
Rogers positive Positive test 20/10/2013
Contador appeal 2 Appeal against sanction 06/02/2012
Nielsen cleared Appeal against sanction 22/03/2011
Contador appeal 1 Appeal against sanction 14/02/2011
Contador decision Temporary suspension 25/01/2011
Contador positive Positive test 21/07/2010
Colò positive Positive test 25/04/2010
Nielsen positive Positive test 25/04/2010
Li positive Positive test 23/03/2010
Mantova investigation Investigation 01/04/2009
Vandenbroucke conviction Criminal conviction 24/06/2005
Vandenbroucke suspension Temporary suspension 21/03/2002
Vandenbroucke fired 1 Termination of contract 01/03/2002
Sainz and Vandenbroucke arrests Arrest 27/02/2002
Abdoujaparov appeal Appeal against sanction 26/01/1998
Abdoujaparov positive 7 Positive test 12/07/1997
Van Brussel fired Termination of contract 12/07/1997
Abdoujaparov positive 6 Positive test 11/06/1997
Abdoujaparov positive 5 Positive test 09/06/1997
Abdoujaparov positive 4 Positive test 11/05/1997
Abdoujaparov positive 3 Positive test 22/04/1997
Abdoujaparov positive 2 Positive test 06/04/1997
Abdoujaparov positive 1 Positive test 02/04/1997
People 15 Nationality
Abdoujaparov Djamolidine
Bossoni Paolo
Brázda Michal
Breyne Jonathan
Colò Alessandro
Contador Alberto
Gilmozzi Sebastian
Kovář Jan
Li Fu Yu
Nielsen Philip
Piccoli Mariano
Rogers Michael
Sveshnikov Kiril
Van Brussel Laurent
Vandenbroucke Frank

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