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Erythropoietin (EPO) Hormone ID 2

EPO, or erythropoietin, is a naturally occurring hormone that stimulates the production of red blood cells. It functions to maintain the proportion of red cells in the blood stream, known as the hematocrit, at a fairly stable level.

EPO was originally developed to treat people with anaemia, particularly that resulting from kidney disease. Since EPO is synthesised primarily in the kidneys, its production is curtailed in such patients, and their haematocrit can fall to dangerously low levels.

For athletes however, EPO can be used to raise haematocrit above natural levels, and thus provide a substantial performance boost in any kind of event where endurance is important.

Testing

Since EPO is naturally found in the body, it is difficult to test for. Initially, before a reliable test was developed, the UCI - the governing body of professional cycling - established a maximum allowable haematocrit of 50%. While this does not prevent doping with EPO, or with blood transfusions, it does create a limit to these practices.

Subsequently an EPO test was developed that takes advantage of slight structural differences between the natural form and the synthetic form, both of which are excreted in the urine. These differences result in different electrical charges on the two types of EPO, so that in an electrical field they can be separated. However this separation is complicated by the fact that both natural and synthetic forms of EPO are not homogeneous. That is, they consist of a group of similar but slightly different molecules. Each type of molecule behaves slightly different in an electrical field, so distinguishing natural from synthetic involves judging the patterns these different molecules make.

While patterns that are considered definitely indicative of the presence of synthetic EPO can be identified, the test probably has a very large number of false negatives: patterns that are judged to be solely natural EPO despite the high likelihood of the presence of some synthetic EPO.

To make detection even more complicated, in the past few years several new versions of EPO have been developed that frequently require their own test.

One of these newer versions, CERA, is a longer-acting substance, and has become increasingly popular with athletes. The test for CERA, though different from that for the original synthetic EPO, is based on the same general principle of charge separation.

Contributor: Andy Smith

Incidents 358 Type Date
Cardoso, A positive Positive test 18/06/2017
Pulidori positive Positive test 14/05/2017
Heras appeal Appeal against sanction 08/05/2017
Belda, D positive Positive test 09/03/2017
Operación Grial convictions Criminal conviction 10/10/2016
Cash investigation Investigation 27/06/2016
Puerto appeal Appeal against sanction 14/06/2016
Fajt positive Positive test 10/03/2016
Boogerd suspension Temporary suspension 06/01/2016
Androni Giocattoli appeal Appeal against sanction 30/10/2015
Androni Giocattoli team suspension Temporary suspension 01/08/2015
Høj admission Admission statement 19/07/2015
Springer positive Positive test 28/06/2015
Sørensen, N admission Admission statement 22/06/2015
Appollonio positive Positive test 14/06/2015
Santambrogio conviction Criminal conviction 14/05/2015
Carretero positive Positive test 22/04/2015
Mondory positive Positive test 17/02/2015
Leinders suspension Permanent ban 22/01/2015
Ratti appeal Appeal against sanction 12/11/2014
Astana auto-suspension Violation 10/10/2014
Iglinskiy, V positive Positive test 11/08/2014
Rabottini positive Positive test 08/08/2014
Iglinskiy, M positive Positive test 01/08/2014
Voskamp admission Admission statement 10/07/2014
Bruyneel suspension Temporary suspension 22/04/2014
Celaya suspension Temporary suspension 22/04/2014
Marti suspension Temporary suspension 22/04/2014
Hesjedal admission Admission statement 30/10/2013
Klier admission Admission statement 15/08/2013
Zabel admission 2 Admission statement 28/07/2013
Blijlevens admission Admission statement 25/07/2013
O'Grady admission Admission statement 24/07/2013
Durand admission Admission statement 24/07/2013
Kopp admission Admission statement 24/06/2013
Santambrogio positive Positive test 04/05/2013
Puerto convictions Criminal conviction 30/04/2013
Di Luca positive 3 Positive test 29/04/2013
Landis-US Postal Qui Tam lawsuit Hearing evidence 23/04/2013
Holczer v Schumacher Hearing evidence 18/04/2013
Angoulême convictions Criminal conviction 09/04/2013
Schumacher admission Admission statement 29/03/2013
Massa investigation Investigation 22/03/2013
Sørensen, R admission Admission statement 18/03/2013
Serebryakov positive 2 Positive test 18/03/2013
Sayar positive Positive test 11/03/2013
Boogerd admission Admission statement 06/03/2013
Leinders criminal investigation Investigation 16/02/2013
Puerto - Vainsteins link Hearing evidence 16/02/2013
Puerto - Cipollini link Hearing evidence 09/02/2013
Rasmussen, M admission (Rabobank) Admission statement 31/01/2013
Rasmussen, M admission (CSC) Admission statement 31/01/2013
Niermann admission Admission statement 28/01/2013
Kemna admission Admission statement 24/01/2013
Lotz admission 2 Admission statement 20/01/2013
Dekker, T admission Admission statement 19/01/2013
Nelissen, D admission Admission statement 19/01/2013
Bouwmans admission Admission statement 17/01/2013
Armstrong admission Admission statement 14/01/2013
Crawford admission Admission statement 05/12/2012
Gasparre admission Admission statement 26/11/2012
De Jongh resignation Termination of contract 27/10/2012
Julich resignation Termination of contract 25/10/2012
Julich admission (Motorola) Admission statement 25/10/2012
Kjærgaard admission (Chicky World) Admission statement 23/10/2012
Kjærgaard admission (US Postal) Admission statement 23/10/2012
Hodge resignation (ONCE) Termination of contract 18/10/2012
Hodge resignation (Festina) Admission statement 18/10/2012
White suspension Temporary suspension 13/10/2012
Bruyneel resignation Termination of contract 12/10/2012
Barry suspension Temporary suspension 10/10/2012
Danielson suspension Temporary suspension 10/10/2012
Hincapie admission Admission statement 10/10/2012
Leipheimer suspension Temporary suspension 10/10/2012
Vandevelde suspension Temporary suspension 10/10/2012
Zabriskie suspension Temporary suspension 10/10/2012
Houanard positive Positive test 21/09/2012
Leipheimer admission (Rabobank) Admission statement 21/09/2012
Vaughters evidence Hearing evidence 12/09/2012
Hamilton admission 2 Admission statement 30/08/2012
Schmid admission 2 Admission statement 28/08/2012
Armstrong permanent ban Permanent ban 24/08/2012
US Postal lifetime bans Permanent ban 10/07/2012
US Postal investigation 2 (1997-2002) Investigation 12/06/2012
US Postal investigation 2 (1995) Investigation 12/06/2012
US Postal investigation 2 (2005-2007) Investigation 12/06/2012
US Postal investigation 2 (2003-2004) Investigation 12/06/2012
Gabrovski positive Positive test 24/04/2012
Galimzyanov admission Admission statement 17/04/2012
Astarloza appeal Appeal against sanction 28/03/2012
Caruso positive 2 Positive test 27/03/2012
Galimzyanov positive Positive test 22/03/2012
Operación Skype arrest Arrest 08/03/2012
Kocjan positive Positive test 08/03/2012
Serebryakov positive 1 Positive test 21/02/2012
Savio criminal investigation Investigation 15/12/2011
Bedoucha arrest Arrest 29/11/2011
Shmidt positive Positive test 15/11/2011
García Dapena admission Admission statement 04/09/2011
Andrenacci positive Positive test 20/08/2011
Pont positive Positive test 26/06/2011
Heras acquittal Appeal against sanction 24/06/2011
Operación Carrera Investigation 21/06/2011
Hamilton admission 1 Admission statement 19/05/2011
Ferrari investigation Investigation 15/04/2011
Muto positive Positive test 10/04/2011
Via Col convictions Criminal conviction 27/10/2010
Matschiner admission Admission statement 12/10/2010
Matschiner conviction Criminal conviction 11/10/2010
Facchinetti suspension Temporary suspension 01/10/2010
Emilia arrests Arrest 21/09/2010
García Dapena positive Positive test 13/09/2010
Sentjens positive Positive test 16/08/2010
Ortega positive Positive test 04/08/2010
Via Col suspensions [Miotti, Giuliani] Permanent ban 15/07/2010
Via Col suspensions [Bonin, Nikacevic] Temporary suspension 15/06/2010
Kortrijk indictment Hearing evidence 07/06/2010
Valverde appeal Appeal against sanction 01/06/2010
Frei admission Admission statement 27/04/2010
Frei positive Positive test 21/03/2010
Vazquez Hueso positive Positive test 20/03/2010
Larpe positive Positive test 20/03/2010
Giunti positive Positive test 23/02/2010
Ratti positive Positive test 21/01/2010
Via Col suspensions [Munoz] Temporary suspension 14/12/2009
Operación Grial arrests Arrest 24/11/2009
Fernandez, A positive Positive test 15/10/2009
Axelsson positive 2 Positive test 20/09/2009
Bosisio positive Positive test 02/09/2009
Jiménez positive Positive test 12/08/2009
Pescara raids Investigation 24/07/2009
Astarloza positive Positive test 26/06/2009
Dekker, T counter-analysis positive Positive test 20/06/2009
Via Col Padua investigation Investigation 16/06/2009
Het laatste geel admissions Admission statement 09/06/2009
Freiburg Report - Telekom Investigation 13/05/2009
Freiburg Report - T-Mobile Investigation 13/05/2009
Valverde Italian suspension Temporary suspension 11/05/2009
Rebellin investigation Investigation 30/04/2009
Frigo appeal Criminal conviction 24/04/2009
Colom positive Positive test 02/04/2009
Mantova investigation Investigation 01/04/2009
Matschiner arrest Arrest 30/03/2009
Kerschbaum fired Termination of contract 22/03/2009
Kerschbaum arrest Arrest 21/03/2009
Pfannberger positive 2 Positive test 19/03/2009
Ascani appeal 2 Appeal against sanction 16/02/2009
Museeuw admission 2 Admission statement 21/01/2009
Peers conviction Criminal conviction 16/12/2008
Planckaert conviction Criminal conviction 16/12/2008
Landuyt conviction Criminal conviction 16/12/2008
Museeuw conviction Criminal conviction 16/12/2008
Kohl admission Admission statement 22/10/2008
Freiburg criminal investigation: Telekom Investigation 13/10/2008
Lotz conviction Criminal conviction 03/10/2008
Cavallari positive Positive test 18/09/2008
Mayo appeal Appeal against sanction 12/08/2008
Museeuw appeal 2 Appeal against sanction 01/08/2008
Bebto suspension Permanent ban 10/07/2008
Dueñas positive Positive test 08/07/2008
Beltrán positive 2 Positive test 05/07/2008
Bossoni positive Positive test 29/06/2008
Ascani appeal 1 Appeal against sanction 10/05/2008
Bileka positive 1 Positive test 18/04/2008
Ullrich fraud investigation Investigation 13/04/2008
Balestri, Barotti RS and Barotti A suspensions Permanent ban 10/03/2008
Santuccione suspension Permanent ban 18/12/2007
Hamburger admission 1 Admission statement 07/11/2007
Hamburger admission 2 Admission statement 07/11/2007
Di Luca temporary ban Temporary suspension 16/10/2007
Chiasso raid Arrest 29/09/2007
Jaksche suspension Temporary suspension 19/09/2007
Papp admission Admission statement 13/08/2007
Koerts admission 2 Admission statement 11/08/2007
Camenzind appeal Appeal against sanction 08/08/2007
Sinkewitz admission Admission statement 31/07/2007
Mayo positive 2 Positive test 24/07/2007
Di Luca acquittal Investigation 12/07/2007
Mazzoleni hearing Hearing evidence 04/07/2007
Jaksche admissions 1 Admission statement 30/06/2007
Jaksche admissions 2 Admission statement 30/06/2007
Alessandri admission Admission statement 29/06/2007
Ascani positive Positive test 26/06/2007
Herinne statement Hearing evidence 15/06/2007
Kortrijk arrests Arrest 07/06/2007
Kyneb admission Admission statement 25/05/2007
Riis admission Admission statement 25/05/2007
Holm admission Admission statement 25/05/2007
Puerto - Bartoli link Hearing evidence 25/05/2007
Aldag admission Admission statement 24/05/2007
Heinrich admission Admission statement 24/05/2007
Zabel admission 1 Positive test 24/05/2007
Schmid admission 1 Admission statement 23/05/2007
Bölts admission Admission statement 23/05/2007
Henn admission Admission statement 22/05/2007
Dietz admission Admission statement 21/05/2007
Ribeiro, S positive Positive test 23/04/2007
Pevenage admission Admission statement 16/03/2007
Puerto Court 31 judgement Hearing evidence 08/03/2007
Finistère convictions Criminal conviction 23/02/2007
Museeuw admission 1 Admission statement 24/01/2007
Millar and Lelli acquittal Hearing evidence 19/01/2007
Cofidis convictions Criminal conviction 19/01/2007
Camenzind fine Criminal conviction 04/12/2006
Skibby admission Admission statement 19/11/2006
Andreu admission Admission statement 11/09/2006
Testa admission Admission statement 11/09/2006
Hernandez positive Positive test 04/07/2006
Puerto - Pantani link Hearing evidence 03/07/2006
Puerto list (active in 2006) Investigation 30/06/2006
Roux admission 2 Admission statement 19/06/2006
Roux admission 1 Admission statement 19/06/2006
Vrijman investigation Investigation 31/05/2006
Bologna appeal Appeal against sanction 23/05/2006
Capelle appeal Appeal against sanction 25/04/2006
Rumsas, E conviction Criminal conviction 26/01/2006
Ficek conviction Criminal conviction 26/01/2006
Rumsas, R conviction Criminal conviction 26/01/2006
Heras positive Positive test 17/09/2005
Guidi adverse analytical finding Adverse analytical finding 31/07/2005
Como and Bergamo gym raids Investigation 24/07/2005
Frigo arrest Arrest 13/07/2005
Rumsas, R arrest Arrest 29/06/2005
Vandenbroucke conviction Criminal conviction 24/06/2005
Lazzaro conviction Criminal conviction 11/06/2005
Capelle positive Positive test 07/06/2005
Gaumont admission 2 Admission statement 01/06/2005
Lotz admission 1 Admission statement 01/06/2005
De Angeli positive Positive test 22/03/2005
Millar appeal Appeal against sanction 17/02/2005
Phonak management resignations Termination of contract 03/01/2005
Museeuw appeal 1 Appeal against sanction 28/12/2004
Vandenbroucke admission Admission statement 29/11/2004
Landuyt suspensions Temporary suspension 08/10/2004
Bologna trial conviction Criminal conviction 01/10/2004
CSC doping Hearing evidence 14/08/2004
Millar suspension Temporary suspension 04/08/2004
Camenzind positive Positive test 22/07/2004
Blitz-related exclusions Exclusion 12/07/2004
Losa suspension Temporary suspension 03/07/2004
Di Luca exclusion Exclusion 02/07/2004
Millar exclusion Exclusion 25/06/2004
Millar admission Admission statement 24/06/2004
Millar arrest Arrest 23/06/2004
Swart admission Admission statement 15/06/2004
Oil for Drugs raids Arrest 10/06/2004
Kelme legal investigation Investigation 21/05/2004
Cofidis resignations Termination of contract 05/05/2004
Kozlitine indictment Investigation 23/04/2004
Cofidis team suspension Temporary suspension 09/04/2004
Bruylandts positive Positive test 08/04/2004
Kelme sports investigation Investigation 30/03/2004
Sassone admission Admission statement 25/03/2004
Manzano revelations 2 [laundry list] Admission statement 25/03/2004
Ferrara moral judgment 1 Investigation 11/03/2004
Ferrara moral judgment 3 Investigation 11/03/2004
Ferrara moral judgment 2 Investigation 11/03/2004
Di Luca - Santuccione phone call Hearing evidence 03/03/2004
Gaumont and Vasseur arrests Arrest 21/01/2004
Sassone arrest Arrest 13/01/2004
Cofidis raids Investigation 12/01/2004
Rutkiewicz arrest Arrest 12/01/2004
Foucachon admissions Admission statement 03/12/2003
Foucachon conviction Criminal conviction 03/12/2003
Ferrara acquittals 2 Hearing evidence 19/11/2003
Ferrara acquittals 1 Hearing evidence 19/11/2003
Landuyt arrest Arrest 05/09/2003
Ribeiro, B suspension Temporary suspension 21/08/2003
Llorente positive Positive test 18/07/2003
Kintana positive Positive test 21/06/2003
Rumsas, R positive Positive test 16/05/2003
Pérez, F positive 2 Positive test 03/05/2003
Pérez, F positive 1 Positive test 02/05/2003
Rumsas, E arrest Arrest 28/07/2002
Del Olmo appeal Appeal against sanction 18/07/2002
Sievers positive Positive test 30/05/2002
Przydzial positive Positive test 13/05/2002
Convalle admission 2 Admission statement 09/04/2002
Mondini fired Termination of contract 07/04/2002
Vandenbroucke suspension Temporary suspension 21/03/2002
Vandenbroucke fired 1 Termination of contract 01/03/2002
Sainz and Vandenbroucke arrests Arrest 27/02/2002
Simeoni admission Admission statement 12/02/2002
Del Olmo case closure Appeal against sanction 19/12/2001
Axelsson positive 1 Positive test 14/10/2001
Hamburger appeal Appeal against sanction 09/08/2001
TVM convictions Criminal conviction 18/07/2001
Del Olmo positive Positive test 07/07/2001
Hervé positive Positive test 05/06/2001
Forconi positive Positive test 19/05/2001
Barbero positive Positive test 13/05/2001
Chotard positive Positive test 13/05/2001
Hamburger adverse analytical finding Adverse analytical finding 18/04/2001
Meier, R positive Positive test 18/04/2001
Eight Festina convictions Criminal conviction 23/12/2000
Davy admission Admission statement 26/10/2000
Leblanc admission 2 Admission statement 25/10/2000
Roussel - Voet evidence Hearing evidence 24/10/2000
Rijkaert trial convictions Criminal conviction 02/10/2000
Järmann admission Admission statement 08/09/2000
Luxembourg doping ring Hearing evidence 01/07/2000
Chiotti admission Admission statement 28/04/2000
Rijkaert admission 2 Admission statement 30/03/2000
Dalgaard Jensen admission Admission statement 21/03/2000
Dblab Lista Nera Hearing evidence 27/12/1999
Hamburger positive 3 Positive test 03/07/1999
Livingston positive 2 Positive test 03/07/1999
Brescia raids Investigation 29/06/1999
Soprani arrests Arrest 29/06/1999
Cofidis arrests Arrest 07/05/1999
Menthéour admission 2 Admission statement 03/02/1999
Ferrara raid Investigation 19/10/1998
Zülle admission re ONCE Admission statement 07/09/1998
Giardini Margherita raid [Bologna] Investigation 12/08/1998
Ullrich positive 1 Positive test 02/08/1998
1998 Tour adverse analytical findings Adverse analytical finding 02/08/1998
Pantani positive 3 Positive test 28/07/1998
TVM judicial investigation Investigation 28/07/1998
Zülle-Meier public admissions Admission statement 27/07/1998
Pantani positive 2 Positive test 27/07/1998
Stephens admission Admission statement 27/07/1998
Livingston positive 1 Positive test 25/07/1998
Festina rider admissions Admission statement 24/07/1998
Festina management arrests Arrest 23/07/1998
Festina judicial positives 1 Positive test 23/07/1998
Beltrán positive 1 Positive test 22/07/1998
Jalabert positive Positive test 22/07/1998
Pantani positive 1 Positive test 22/07/1998
Zabel positive 3 Positive test 21/07/1998
Van Den Bossche admission Admission statement 21/07/1998
Desbiens positive 2 Positive test 20/07/1998
Sacchi positive Positive test 19/07/1998
Durand positive 2 Positive test 19/07/1998
Olano positive 2 Positive test 19/07/1998
Mazzoleni positive Positive test 19/07/1998
Minali positive 2 Positive test 17/07/1998
Cipollini positive Positive test 17/07/1998
Roussel admission Admission statement 17/07/1998
Bölts positive Positive test 17/07/1998
Blijlevens positive Positive test 15/07/1998
Roussel and Rijkaert arrests Arrest 15/07/1998
Minali positive 1 Positive test 15/07/1998
Heppner positive Positive test 14/07/1998
Serrano, M positive Positive test 13/07/1998
Hamburger positive 2 Positive test 13/07/1998
Tafi positive Positive test 12/07/1998
Zabel positive 2 Positive test 12/07/1998
Voet arrest Arrest 08/07/1998
D'Hont investigative journalism 2 Investigation 08/04/1998
TVM vehicle search Investigation 04/03/1998
Planckaert, E admission Admission statement 19/01/1998
Sanders, W conviction Criminal conviction 10/12/1997
Gisbers admission Admission statement 27/11/1997
Krikke admission Admission statement 27/11/1997
Sanders, W investigation Investigation 26/11/1997
Convalle admission 1 Admission statement 02/01/1997
D'Hont investigative journalism 1 Investigation 08/09/1995
Draaijer death Medical emergency 27/02/1990
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Aldag Rolf
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Andrenacci Danilo
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Saiz Manolo
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